Gillespie, Michael Patrick. Reading William Kennedy. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2001.

Kennedy, William. Billy Phelan's Greatest Game. New York: Viking Press, 1983.

Kennedy, William. Ironweed. New York: Penguin, 1989.

Lynch, Vivian Valvano. Portraits of Artists: Warriors in the Novels of William Kennedy. Bethesda: International Scholars Publications, 1999.

Michener, Christian. From Then into Now: William Kennedy's Albany Novels. Scranton: University of Scranton Press, 1998.

Van Dover, J.K. Understanding William Kennedy. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1991.