1. What do animals symbolize in the novel? Consider what real animals appear in the story as well as the use of animals in metaphors. Discuss any special importance of specific animals.

2. What role do Mexicans play in Ceremony? Think about how Mexicans are similar to and different from Native Americans, and why is it important for certain characters to be Mexican.

3. How is old age presented? Consider which characters are old and if we know their age. What does their age do for them? What does it allow them to do for others?

4. How does repetition function in Ceremony? Think about formal (sentence structure, rhyme, etc.) as well as thematic repetition. Consider both small and large scales, such as the repetition of sounds in a single sentence or the repetition of ideas in the prose and poetry sections.

5. Discuss the importance of dreams. What does Tayo dream about? How does Tayo's relationship to his dreams change in the course of the novel?