Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.

What It Means to Be a Contender

Mr. Donatelli draws an important distinction between being a champion and being a contender. While the odds of one being a champion are slim, he knows that anyone can be a contender. Being a contender is not about raw talent or the kind of innate skill that few possess—being a contender, as Mr. Donatelli says, is about blood, sweat, and tears. It is purely a measure of how hard someone works. The reason this is so important to Alfred is because he has never worked for something so hard; he does not even know if he can do it. Also, Mr. Donatelli knows that the concept of being a contender redefines the way Alfred thinks of himself. If Alfred is a contender, then he is somebody special. Being a contender comes not from what station in life a person is born, or how lucky they might be to have received a special gift or talent, but being a contender is a function of who a person is.


In the beginning of the book, Alfred teeters between two different destinies. He could go in one of two directions: toward a path of self-destruction as his friend James or toward a place where he can try and make something of himself. The problem with the latter is how difficult it is, especially when one has little support. Alfred decides to choose the road of self-improvement, which is why the concept of being a contender is so important to him. He improves himself along with his determination, his work ethic, his skills, his knowledge of himself, and his role in life. He decides that yes, he can be someone, and it does not mean that he must be a champion boxer. Being someone means going to night school, helping a brother, and working with kids at a recreation program. By the end of the book Alfred has an understanding of self, and thus, the self- improvement he needs to help him conquer temptations of negativity and nothingness.


For people in Alfred's position, quitting is not merely the ceasing of activity. Quitting is giving up in a way that begets a future with sparse ambition and little success. Quitting seems so easy, as indicated by James's and Alfred's hasty decisions to quit school. Furthermore, Alfred quits boxing, and James, worse still, quits functioning in normal society. For people whose prospects seem dim, quitting seals ones fate, trapping one into a life that he or she feels he or she cannot escape. Alfred demonstrates a will and determination that will not allow him to simply quit. What he learns about himself through his boxing training is that he is the kind of person who does not want to quit, which is perhaps his greatest success of all.

Fitting in

In a nutshell, Alfred's predominant reason for feeling as if he is not special is his inability to fit in. He is no longer in school, he has no immediate family, and his best friend has turned away from him to do drugs. He has no support system other than Aunt Pearl, and he has nowhere to turn for acceptance. Boxing provides him with a niche. The people take care of him, even though he is not particularly well suited for the sport. Alfred realizes that he does not need to be a champion boxer to fit in—he only needs to possess a drive and determination that others can appreciate and thus nurture. When Alfred fits in with a group of people brought together by the sport, he realizes that there are other avenues open to him such as school and recreation programs. Alfred learns how to fit in because he learns what it is about himself that is worth appreciating.