What does Crusoe’s father mean by the “middle state”?

The term “middle state,” when used by Crusoe’s father in the beginning of the novel, can most closely be read to mean “middle class.” Mr. Crusoe is telling his son the benefits of being neither rich nor poor. To Mr. Crusoe, the middle class has less to worry about than others of the superior or inferior classes. Middle-class individuals don’t have to worry about making a living or finding an income, nor do they feel pressure about their growing greed or dissatisfaction with the life they life. To Mr. Crusoe, “middle state” is a term that conveys comfort and reliability. 

Why does Crusoe take Xury with him on his escape but not the Moor?

The differences between Xury and the Moor are multiple, and these differences contribute to Xury’s superior desirability as a fellow escapee. Xury, for starters, is a boy, whereas the Moor is an adult. Because the Moor has spent a longer period of his life as a slave, Crusoe feels he may show too much loyalty to his master and prohibit Crusoe from escaping. Xury, on the other hand, is too young to have developed such loyalty. Xury’s youth also lends his character to a more subordinate nature. Furthermore, Xury is physically much weaker than the Moor, and possesses a smaller likelihood of physically preventing Crusoe’s escape. 

Why did Crusoe reject his father’s advice to become a lawyer?

Crusoe exhibits a grander sense of adventure and rebelliousness than the rest of his family. Mr. Crusoe advises his son into law for the stability it offers, and also because Crusoe’s brother was killed when he set off on an adventure to join the military. Crusoe’s stubbornness and rebellious nature prompts him to reject this advice. This decision may also be influenced by the fact that Crusoe is the youngest child, and therefore has and will receive the least inheritance. This predicament causes Crusoe to feel resentment toward his family. 

What does Crusoe’s hallucination on the island mean?

After much time on the island, Crusoe eventually suffers a hallucination in which an angelic figure comes down from the sky and admonishes Crusoe for his actions and separation from God. This hallucination comes after Crusoe’s sense of time has become so muddled he can no longer keep track of the Sabbath. To Crusoe, this hallucination is proof that his shipwreck was God’s punishment for Crusoe’s poor behavior. The hallucination influences Crusoe to read more scripture and repent for his sins. The hallucination’s stand-in as a warning and promotion for the importance of repentance is supported by the fact that once Crusoe begins to repent and repair his relationship with God, his circumstances on the island and his overall outlook on life improve.

Does Crusoe see Friday as an equal on the island?

After rescuing Friday from the cannibals, Crusoe establishes a relationship with Friday that is anything but equal. By this point, Crusoe has already adopted the attitude of king of the island. Additionally, Crusoe’s sense of heroism for saving Friday causes him to feel entitled to ownership of the man. This attitude is exhibited by the fact that, when teaching Friday English, Crusoe teaches him the word “master” before more useful words like “yes” and “no.” Crusoe continues to expect Friday to do his bidding, including menial labor, during the rest of their time on the island. While it is true that Crusoe has an emotional connection to Friday and admits to loving him, it is clear that Crusoe does not see Friday as an equal.