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Antczak, Janice. “Octavia Butler: New Designs for a Challenging Future,” in African-American Voices in Young Adult Literature. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1994.

Federmayer, Eva. “Octavia Butler’s Maternal Cyborgs: The Black Female World of the Xenogenesis Trilogy.” Hungarian Journal of English and American Studies 6.1 (2000).

Gates, Henry Louis Jr., ed. “Octavia Butler.” The Norton Anthology of African-American Literature, 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 2004.

Geyh, Paula, Fred G. Leebron, and Andrew Levy. “Octavia Butler,” in Postmodern American Fiction: A Norton Anthology. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1998.

Haraway, Donna. Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1991.

McCaffery, Larry. Across the Wounded Galaxies: Interviews with Contemporary American Science Fiction Writers. University of Illinois Press, 1990.

Reed, Brian K. “Behold the Woman: The Imaginary Wife in Octavia Butler’s Kindred.” CLA Journal 47.1 (2003).