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The Autobiography of Malcolm X
author Alex Haley wrote the work based on his extensive interviews with
type of work Nonfiction
genre Autobiography; memoir
date of first publication
publisher Grove Press
narrator Malcolm tells his life story while he is in the last
years of his life. Alex Haley recounts the end of Malcolm’s life
in the epilogue.
point of view Malcolm speaks in the first person, focusing on his
actions and thoughts at each point in his life. However, in each
chapter he does include some opinions based on his current perspective
late in his life. In the epilogue, Alex Haley speaks in the first
tone Malcolm alternates between simply presenting the events
of his life and commenting on their social context. His tone ranges from
matter-of-fact to angry.
setting (place) United States (Omaha, Lansing, Boston, New York, Chicago, and
Detroit), the Middle East, and Africa
protagonist Malcolm, who is known as Malcolm Little, Detroit Red, Malcolm
X, and El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz at various points in his life
major conflict Malcolm struggles against both the racism of white
America and the internal problems of various civil rights organizations.
rising action After the government tears apart his family and he
can no longer bear the racism of his all-white high school in Michigan, Malcolm
flees to Boston and Harlem, where he sinks deep into a life of crime.
climax Malcolm’s conversion to Islam in prison after long
hours of studying puts him on a course to rise in the ranks of the
Nation of Islam.
falling action After rising to fame as a fiery Muslim minister, Malcolm
leaves the Nation of Islam to discover a more tolerant and global worldview.
themes Malcolm’s changing perspective on racism; the similarity between
hustling and activism; humanity as a basic right
motifs Status symbols; travel and transformation
symbols The conk; the watch, suitcase, and eyeglasses
foreshadowing Malcolm’s peaceful surrender to a Boston detective
foreshadows his later submission to the Nation of Islam leader,
Elijah Muhammad. Malcolm’s description of his father’s murder and his
assertion that he too will die violently foreshadows his own assassination.
Ace your assignments with our guide to The Autobiography of Malcolm X!