Please wait while we process your payment
If you don't see it, please check your spam folder. Sometimes it can end up there.
Don’t have an account?
Create Your Account
Sign up for your FREE 7-day trial
Already have an account? Log in
Choose Your Plan
$4.99/month + tax
$24.99/year + tax
Save over 50% with a SparkNotes PLUS Annual Plan!
for a group?
Get Annual Plans at a discount when you buy 2 or more!
$18.74 /subscription + tax
Subtotal $37.48 + tax
on 2-49 accounts
on 50-99 accounts
You'll be billed after your free trial ends.
7-Day Free Trial
Renews March 9, 2024
March 2, 2024
Discounts (applied to next billing)
This is not a valid promo code.
(one code per order)
Annual Plan - Group Discount
SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. The free trial period is the first 7 days of your subscription. TO CANCEL YOUR SUBSCRIPTION AND AVOID BEING CHARGED, YOU MUST CANCEL BEFORE THE END OF THE FREE TRIAL PERIOD. You may cancel your subscription on your Subscription and Billing page or contact Customer Support at email@example.com. Your subscription will continue automatically once the free trial period is over. Free trial is available to new customers only.
For the next 7 days, you'll have access to awesome PLUS stuff like AP English test prep, No Fear Shakespeare translations and audio, a note-taking tool, personalized dashboard, & much more!
You’ve successfully purchased a group discount. Your group members can use the joining link below to redeem their group membership. You'll also receive an email with the link.
Members will be prompted to log in or create an account to redeem their group membership.
Thanks for creating a SparkNotes account! Continue to start your free trial.
Your PLUS subscription has expired
In the Old Testament, God is unique, sovereign, and unchanging.
He differs from Greek gods, whose faults and quarrels cause events.
His unchanging nature is hinted at by his names. In biblical Hebrew, God
is called “YAHWEH,” meaning “to be.” This
title is similar to the title God uses with Moses, “I
AM WHO I AM.” However, the God presented in Old Testament
does contradict himself at times. In the course of two chapters
in Exodus, God threatens to destroy the Israelites, relents, and
then pronounces himself loving, forgiving, and slow to anger. God
grants himself the power of self-description; he is whoever he says
Each biblical writer gives God human characteristics.
For example, God speaks. We do not know how his listeners recognize
that it is he who is speaking or what he sounds like, but God certainly embraces
the ability to articulate his intentions through the human convention
of language. Also, God assumes human form. He appears as an angel,
as a group of three men, and as a mysterious army commander. In
a sense, God takes on human qualities like a costume that can also
be taken off, since his specific appearances do not offer a complete
picture of him. Still, these manifestations suggest that there is
a fundamental humanity to the personality of the Hebrew God. God
casually walks in the garden with Adam and Eve. He even physically
wrestles Jacob and allows Jacob to beat him. These humble and endearing
qualities of God contrast his later appearances as a pillar of fire
and a thunderous mountain. The more extreme manifestations are,
like the human manifestations, only a part of God’s character rather
than his sole mode of existence.
God’s initial interaction with humankind is unsolicited.
Noah, Abraham, and Moses do not ask God to form a relationship with them.
Even when God is unseen, his immense power over human fate lurks
beneath the events of the Old Testament narrative. On the surface,
the characters’ experiences are filled with suspense. The characters
submit to chance and have a desperate, irrational faith in God.
When God speaks or appears, we realize he has been in control all
along, and the fear or suspense seems unfounded, trite, or comical.
Amidst the gravity of human events, God’s willingness to cause momentous
events in order to teach a lesson shows him to be a strangely playful
Ace your assignments with our guide to Bible: The Old Testament!