What causes civil war to flare up at the beginning of the play?

The play opens with King Henry discussing plans to join the Crusades in the Holy Land. This plan is immediately thwarted when the Earl of Westmoreland delivers news of an outbreak of violence in Wales. The Welshman Owen Glendower has killed a thousand English troops, mutilated their corpses, and captured Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March. This violence represents a continuation of the Welsh resistance to English supremacy, which has long made England’s eastern border unstable. A similar resistance movement in Scotland has destabilized England’s northern border. The king had believed these resistance movements to be under control, but he was clearly wrong and must once again prepare for battle.

Why do the Percys turn against King Henry?

The Percys turn against King Henry because they believe he has insufficiently repaid them for the assistance they lent him before he ascended to the throne. The Percy family supported Henry when Richard II had cruelly exiled him, and their aid enabled him to return to England, win the public’s favor, and depose Richard II in a bloodless coup. Henry therefore owes the Percys a debt of gratitude. But the Percys feel that the king has broken the oaths he’s made to them. The most recent example, and the last straw, is Henry’s refusal to pay the ransom necessary to bring their kinsman, Edmund Mortimer, back from Wales. Feeling betrayed by the king, the Percys withdraw their allegiance and join the rebellion.

Why does Prince Harry change his ways and pledge allegiance to his father’s cause?

At the end of act 1, scene 2, Prince Harry describes his elaborate plan for his own self-transformation. Although his father and the court see him as an idler and a failed prince, Harry says it’s all an act. He’s merely made himself look like a degenerate so that when the right moment comes, he can cast aside his dishonorable ways and redeem himself. When his father confronts him in act 3, scene 2, Harry decides that the right moment has come, and he pledges allegiance to his father’s cause.

Why does Prince Harry hang out with Falstaff?

There are two answers to this question. One answer relates to Prince Harry’s plan for self-transformation. After a misspent youth idling around with thieves and mountebanks, Harry intends to make a remarkable transformation that will astonish his father and the public. By redeeming himself at the right time, he’ll seem that much more heroic and mature. He therefore hangs out with Falstaff to establish his reprobate status, which he will cast off at the right time. But Harry doesn’t just use Falstaff as part of his plan. He also clearly enjoys the man’s sharp wit, and hanging out with Falstaff has sharpened Harry’s intellect in turn. Falstaff acts like a mentor and surrogate father figure, helping to train Harry’s mind and teach him the ways of the world. In this way, Falstaff helps prepare Harry for his future as king.

Why does Worcester lie to Hotspur about King Henry’s generous deal?

In act 5, when Worcester comes to discuss terms with Henry, the king offers him a deal. If Hotspur agrees to meet Prince Harry in single combat, the king will spare the lives of the rebels and avoid unnecessary death. But when Worcester returns to the rebel camp, he lies, telling Hotspur that Henry insulted the Percys and mocked their grievances. Worcester tells this lie because he suspects that Hotspur would take Henry’s deal, and he wants to make sure the battle goes ahead. Taking the deal would mean that Worcester and his fellow rebels would be granted the king’s pardon. However, Worcester believes that the court would always mistrust them. He therefore lies because he wants to spare himself the perpetual suspicions of the court.