Please wait while we process your payment
If you don't see it, please check your spam folder. Sometimes it can end up there.
Don’t have an account?
Create Your Account
Sign up for your FREE 7-day trial
Already have an account? Log in
Choose Your Plan
$4.99/month + tax
$24.99/year + tax
Save over 50% with a SparkNotes PLUS Annual Plan!
for a group?
Get Annual Plans at a discount when you buy 2 or more!
$18.74 /subscription + tax
Subtotal $37.48 + tax
on 2-49 accounts
on 50-99 accounts
Want 100 or more?
for a customized plan.
You'll be billed after your free trial ends.
7-Day Free Trial
Renews March 5, 2024
February 27, 2024
Discounts (applied to next billing)
This is not a valid promo code.
(one code per order)
Annual Plan - Group Discount
SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. The free trial period is the first 7 days of your subscription. TO CANCEL YOUR SUBSCRIPTION AND AVOID BEING CHARGED, YOU MUST CANCEL BEFORE THE END OF THE FREE TRIAL PERIOD. You may cancel your subscription on your Subscription and Billing page or contact Customer Support at firstname.lastname@example.org. Your subscription will continue automatically once the free trial period is over. Free trial is available to new customers only.
For the next 7 days, you'll have access to awesome PLUS stuff like AP English test prep, No Fear Shakespeare translations and audio, a note-taking tool, personalized dashboard, & much more!
You’ve successfully purchased a group discount. Your group members can use the joining link below to redeem their group membership. You'll also receive an email with the link.
Members will be prompted to log in or create an account to redeem their group membership.
Thanks for creating a SparkNotes account! Continue to start your free trial.
Your PLUS subscription has expired
In the present, Elaine walks down Queen Street The zoology building has long since been torn down. Mr. Hrbik’s neighborhood has gentrified. Even the flag is different now.
Now that she’s older, Elaine understands Mr. Hrbik’s loneliness but wonders why he pursued younger women. She would attack any man his age that went after her daughters.
When she enters a store to buy gifts, a Middle Eastern woman approaches her. The woman begs Elaine for help, crying that people in her country are dying. Elaine knows the woman is talking about the war that killed Stephen. She gives the woman money but thinks that the woman probably hates her.
September comes, and Elaine returns both to university and living in her parents’ house. Her summer lethargy fades. She enjoys having two men and not having to choose.
Mr. Hrbik becomes controlling and threatening, even mentioning a time he killed a man. Jon, on the other hand, offers escape from the adults around her.
Jon paints abstract paintings, which he considers pure art because they’re about the process of painting. Elaine thinks they look like roadkill. He refuses to clean his house to the point of filth and accuses anyone who cleans it of trying to mother him. He catagorizes women as either smart or stupid and tells Elaine she’s smarter than most.
One day, Susie begs Elaine to come over. Susie attempted to induce an abortion, and it’s gone badly. Elaine calls Mr. Hrbik. As she rides in the ambulance with Susie, Elaine realizes Susie has been a naïve girl all along. While part of Elaine knows she would have done the same thing in Susie’s situation, she hears a voice in her head that whispers that Susie deserved it.
Mr. Hrbik wonders why Susie didn’t tell him about the baby, and Elaine tells him that she was scared. Elaine eventually stops seeing Mr. Hrbik. When he accosts her at university, she simply walks away.
Elaine dreams of Susie as a girl skipping rope. The young Susie asks Elaine if she knows what a twinset is, and Elaine knows she’s done something wrong.
Elaine falls in love with Jon. At the parties he throws, he sleeps with other women because he believes sexual exclusivity is bourgeois.
In university, Elaine’s art history class covers art that uses more shadow. She notices that the painters painted naked women the same way they painted food. She prefers Medieval and Renaissance art.
Because she dislikes oil paints, Elaine makes her own egg tempera. She becomes fascinated by glass and reflective objects in art, particularly Van Eyck’s T
he Arnolfini Marriage. She knows that Jon would mock her art, so she doesn’t show it to him. She also takes a night class on doing art for advertisement.
Elaine graduates from university and takes more night classes at the art college. Finally, she gets a job in advertising and an apartment of her own. Jon makes fun of her domesticity but prefers going to her place to staying at his.
Elaine’s parents move to Sault Ste. Marie. Her father believes Toronto has become too polluted.
Elaine begins to receive brief postcards from Stephen. He describes getting married and divorced as if he had no agency in either of these things. Elaine attends one of Stephen’s lectures. After the lecture, Elaine attempts to reminisce, but Stephen appears reluctant to talk about their past. She wonders if he resented having a younger sister tagging after him and hates that they don’t remember the same things about their childhood.
Now Jon paints commercial objects to talk about icons and commercialism. Elaine feels he could use her professional advice but doesn’t offer it. Although Elaine doesn’t keep the house clean for herself, when Jon stays over, she tidies up.
One day Elaine realizes she’s pregnant. She panics, assuming Jon will tell her to get an abortion.
Elaine starts painting still lifes, including one of a washing machine with a wringer the color of pink skin. Another painting depicts three sofas with a broken egg in a giant egg cup on the middle one. Finally, she paints a sprig of nightshade in a glass jar with cats’ eyes peeking out from between the leaves.
She paints multiple paintings of Mrs. Smeath, her eyes accusing Elaine of everything being her fault.
In present-day Toronto, Elaine has now twice given financial support to women in need to cope with her feelings of guilt. We do not yet know why Elaine feels guilty, although from her response to Susie’s hospitalization, we can guess that she failed to support another woman and now tries to atone by funding women in need. At first approach, Elaine assumes both these women to be Cordelia. Elaine flinches from the drunk woman when she realizes the woman has the same eye color as Cordelia, and so Elaine’s guilt in these instances likely foreshadows that Elaine will fail to help Cordelia in some way. Elaine’s automatic assumption that the Middle Eastern woman hates her appears consistent with her beliefs about how women relate to each other, but her comment about Stephen’s death opens the possibility that this hatred also involves a war Canada participates in. Elaine’s guilt over the woman is twofold: both for a failure to help Cordelia and for the war. Elaine uses extremely vague language here, conflating multiple cultures under the phrase “Middle Eastern,” which suggests Elaine doesn’t understand either where the woman came from or Stephen’s death, but she still feels the need to atone.
Elaine’s behavior around Susie and pregnancy demonstrates how her learned judgement and shame have isolated her from other women. Susie presumably turns to Elaine for support because she considers Elaine a friend or, at least, a woman her age who knows her situation and can help. Susie therefore expects sisterhood from Elaine, the kind of unconditional bonding together against a threat that Marjorie and Babs displayed when Mr. Hrbik made Susie cry in class. While Elaine helps Susie, she denies Susie true sisterhood by immediately calling Mr. Hrbik without asking Susie if she wants him to know about the abortion. Elaine also axiomatically judges Susie’s behavior, with her mind echoing the very words Mrs. Smeath used to describe Elaine’s bullying. She does this even though Elaine herself is also having an affair with Mr. Hrbik. Elaine believes, based on her childhood experiences, that women always deserve their pain and suffering because, as she learned in women’s magazines, women are always doing something wrong. In Elaine’s dream about Susie, Susie takes on the role of Carol Campbell, naïve but still dangerous. This dream highlights that while Elaine now recognizes that she’d misjudged Susie as scheming and sly, Elaine still doesn’t trust Susie enough to bond with her.
Elaine’s developing art style in these chapters combines her particular struggles as a woman painter and her inability to cope with her traumatic past. None of the artists Elaine studies in school are women, and these male artists paint women in the same way they paint food—for consumption—which leaves her with no female role models. Elaine’s interest in painting reflective objects hints at her desire to find a mirror, someone like her, in the art world. Once again, the Virgin Mary is the only woman Elaine has encountered in art who resonates with her, and accordingly, Elaine turns to egg tempera, the medium of the Mary paintings, as a tool to develop her style. In addition, Elaine’s artwork always gazes into the past in the way she paints images from her childhood, including her painting of Mrs. Smeath, which represents her unreconciled feelings of shame from her youth. As Elaine once looked at those who confused her through her cat’s eye, she now uses the power of distance a painter’s gaze gives her to render Mrs. Smeath, whom she imagines would judge her for her pregnancy, in a way that she can control.
Whereas Elaine’s art looks backward, Jon’s art always chases the present, which demonstrates the relative freedom he has as an aspiring male painter. Jon stops taking art classes after life drawing because he believes art instruction is irrelevant. He doesn’t feel a need to learn from the past because men like him have always painted, and therefore, he doesn’t need to search for role models. Jon’s attitude also contrasts to those of Babs and Marjorie, who still take life drawing despite being professional painters, presumably because they have less room for technical error. We see this double standard for male and female painters comically when Jon begins to paint the same kinds of images Elaine paints for a living—just not as skillfully—and yet considers his work art and hers irrelevant. Jon can make the art he wants on his own terms without concern for precedent, skill level, or labels. Jon’s constant trashing of old styles in favor of new ones also recalls present-day Elaine’s observations about how modern society treats so many things as disposable instead of repairing them. Trapped in her 1940s mindset, Elaine “repairs” the ways in which art history doesn’t serve her, whereas Jon, fully modern, chases fads.