Please wait while we process your payment
If you don't see it, please check your spam folder. Sometimes it can end up there.
Don’t have an account?
Create Your Account
Sign up for your FREE 7-day trial
Already have an account? Log in
Choose Your Plan
$4.99/month + tax
$24.99/year + tax
Save over 50% with a SparkNotes PLUS Annual Plan!
for a group?
Get Annual Plans at a discount when you buy 2 or more!
$18.74 /subscription + tax
Subtotal $37.48 + tax
on 2-49 accounts
on 50-99 accounts
Want 100 or more?
for a customized plan.
You'll be billed after your free trial ends.
7-Day Free Trial
Renews October 4, 2023
September 27, 2023
Discounts (applied to next billing)
This is not a valid promo code.
(one code per order)
Annual Plan - Group Discount
SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. The free trial period is the first 7 days of your subscription. TO CANCEL YOUR SUBSCRIPTION AND AVOID BEING CHARGED, YOU MUST CANCEL BEFORE THE END OF THE FREE TRIAL PERIOD. You may cancel your subscription on your Subscription and Billing page or contact Customer Support at email@example.com. Your subscription will continue automatically once the free trial period is over. Free trial is available to new customers only.
For the next 7 days, you'll have access to awesome PLUS stuff like AP English test prep, No Fear Shakespeare translations and audio, a note-taking tool, personalized dashboard, & much more!
You’ve successfully purchased a group discount. Your group members can use the joining link below to redeem their group membership. You'll also receive an email with the link.
Members will be prompted to log in or create an account to redeem their group membership.
Thanks for creating a SparkNotes account! Continue to start your free trial.
Your PLUS subscription has expired
*See discount terms and conditions.
Throughout the chapters set in the present time, Snowman frequently hears voices in his head. All of the voices Snowman hears come from his past, and he can’t seem to control them. Although these past voices sometimes keep him company in his otherwise lonely situation, their involuntary appearance in his head can sometimes make him feel haunted or tortured by his previous life. Some of the voices Snowman hears speak in quotes from literature or from the manuals and self-help textbooks that he studied for his undergraduate thesis. Even though Snowman remembers the words, he often forgets where the words come from and who wrote them. Snowman also occasionally has a difficult time identifying the other voices that belonged to real people he used to know. This inability to remember suggests that Snowman’s memories of his old life are receding and may eventually leave him abandoned and all alone in the present. The voice that comes to him most frequently, and which Snowman has no trouble identifying, is that of Oryx. Before the apocalyptic event that devastated the world, Snowman was in love with this woman, and his continued preoccupation with her voice indicates just how desperate he feels for companionship now that he’s alone.
Snowman spends much of his time dealing with the desperation of his present situation by thinking about his past. Memory is thus an important and ever-present motif, both in Snowman’s thoughts and in the narrative structure, which constantly moves back and forth between the present and the past. Snowman recognizes that his preoccupation with the past prevents him from being more proactive about his own survival. In addition to misplacing useful tools, like the knife he once found and quickly lost, he has also proven to be an ineffective scavenger, often prioritizing his search for alcohol and forgetting to look for essentials like soap. In chapter 3, Snowman tries to remind himself to focus on the present. He calls to mind the words from a survival manual that advised its reader to “avoid pointless repinings.” The phrase “pointless repinings” comes back several times throughout the novel. Snowman’s repetition of this phrase is ironic because even though his memories won’t change anything, they do keep him company, and thus they may not be so pointless after all.
At several points in the novel, Snowman draws attention to how Crake played God. Despite his resolute atheism, Crake cast himself as a symbolic God when he designed the facility named Paradice and populated it with a new breed of humans. Although Crake likely took an ironic attitude toward the name “Paradice,” Snowman recognizes that Crake really did have a God complex. Not only did he create a new race of people, but he also took it upon himself to exterminate the existing human population. In the present time, Snowman twists Crake’s irony against itself by turning Crake into a god to be worshipped by the Children of Crake. Snowman describes himself as the “God of Bullshit,” and he makes up outlandish creation stories that the Crakers wholeheartedly believe. Effectively, Snowman has become Crake’s prophet, and he is writing the liturgy for Crake’s worship.