Hegel describes several historical methods in Introduction to the Philosophy of History, starting with original history and reflective history. Original history is history written by a historian who is living at the time being written about. The spirit of the historian is an essential aspect of the spirit of the society about which the historian writes. On the other hand, reflective history is written after the time covered in the history has passed, and therefore it involves a separation at which the historian can analyze and interpret (reflect upon) the events they are covering. Reflective history is divided into four sub-forms or sub-methods: universal history, pragmatic history, critical history, and specialized history.

Popular pages: Introduction to the Philosophy of History