Please wait while we process your payment
If you don't see it, please check your spam folder. Sometimes it can end up there.
Don’t have an account?
Create Your Account
Sign up for your FREE 7-day trial
Already have an account? Log in
Choose Your Plan
$4.99/month + tax
$24.99/year + tax
Save over 50% with a SparkNotes PLUS Annual Plan!
for a group?
Get Annual Plans at a discount when you buy 2 or more!
$18.74 /subscription + tax
Subtotal $37.48 + tax
on 2-49 accounts
on 50-99 accounts
Want 100 or more?
for a customized plan.
You'll be billed after your free trial ends.
7-Day Free Trial
Renews March 1, 2024
February 23, 2024
Discounts (applied to next billing)
This is not a valid promo code.
(one code per order)
Annual Plan - Group Discount
SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. The free trial period is the first 7 days of your subscription. TO CANCEL YOUR SUBSCRIPTION AND AVOID BEING CHARGED, YOU MUST CANCEL BEFORE THE END OF THE FREE TRIAL PERIOD. You may cancel your subscription on your Subscription and Billing page or contact Customer Support at firstname.lastname@example.org. Your subscription will continue automatically once the free trial period is over. Free trial is available to new customers only.
For the next 7 days, you'll have access to awesome PLUS stuff like AP English test prep, No Fear Shakespeare translations and audio, a note-taking tool, personalized dashboard, & much more!
You’ve successfully purchased a group discount. Your group members can use the joining link below to redeem their group membership. You'll also receive an email with the link.
Members will be prompted to log in or create an account to redeem their group membership.
Thanks for creating a SparkNotes account! Continue to start your free trial.
Your PLUS subscription has expired
Dates The only date regarding Thales' life that we know for certain, is the year that he predicted a solar eclipse, 585 B.C. The historian Apollodorus suggests that Thales was born in 625 B.C., but this claim should be accepted with some caution. Apollodorus tended to calculate birth dates on the assumption that a man was forty years old at the time of his greatest achievement.
Place of residence Thales lived in the city of Miletus in Ionia in Northern Greece.
Philosophical school Thales was the first of the Milesian philosophers, so called because they all resided in the city of Miletus. The Milesians, like Thales, were preoccupied with natural philosophy and with giving an account of the origins of the universe.
Philosophical interests Thales' interests were broad ranging (for instance, he was famed as a military engineer), with his philosophical interests covering everything from natural philosophy, metaphysics, mathematics, and astronomy.
Available evidence for his thought We have no direct quotations (fragments) from any work of Thales. In fact, it is not even clear that he wrote down any of his theories. Our only information regarding his philosophy comes from five separate reports (testimonia) in Aristotle, all of which seem to themselves come only from second-hand reports, not from any first-hand familiarity with Thales' work.
Dates Anaximander was born in roughly 600 BC and lived until roughly 550.
Place of residence Like Thales, Anaximander lived in Miletus, in Ionia, Greece.
Philosophical school Anaximander was the second of the three Milesians.
Philosophical pedigree Anaximander was almost certainly a student of Thales, and the teacher of Anaximines
Primary philosophical interests Like his teacher, Thales, Anaximander's philosophical interests seem to have ranged over the subjects of natural philosophy, metaphysics, astronomy, and mathematics.
Available evidence for his thought As with Thales, there are no direct quotations available from Anaximander's work, though we do know that he wrote books. The testimonia we have in the case of Anaximander are more numerous in number, however, than in Thales' case, and they also derive from a wider array of sources, including Aetius, Simplicius, and Pseudo-Plutarch in addition to Aristotle.
Dates There are no known dates concerning Anaximines, though we do know that he was slightly younger than Anaximander.
Place of residence Anaximines was also from Miletus, in Ionia Greece
Philosophical school Anaximines was the last of the Milesians
Philosophical pedigree Anaximines was probably a student of Anaxagoras.
Primary Philosophical Interests As far as we know, Anaximines only concerned himself with natural philosophy and metaphysics.
Available evidence for his thought With Anaximines, finally, we have some very short fragments in addition to testimonia.
Dates Xenophanes was born in 570 B.C.
Place of residence Xenophanes lived in Colophon, Greece, not far from Miletus.
Philosophical school Xenophanes was not associated with any known philosophical school.
Philosophical pedigree There is speculation that Xenophanes was the teacher of Parmenides at one time.
Philosophical Interests Xenophanes did seem to engage in some natural philosophy and metaphysics, but his primary contributions are in the fields of theology and epistemology
Available evidence for his thought We have quite a large number of very short fragments from the works of Xenophanes.
Dates Heraclitus was born in 540 B.C.
Place of residence Heraclitus lived in Ephesus, near Colophon.
Philosophical school Like Xenophanes, Heraclitus is not associated with any known philosophical school.
Philosophical pedigree As far as we know Heraclitus was neither the student nor the teacher of any other of the Presocratic philosophers. He did, however, forge his ties to history by rudely insulting all previous thinkers.
Philosophical interests Heraclitus's thought has important implications in the fields of epistemology, natural philosophy, and metaphysics.
Available evidence for his thought The evidence explodes at this stage. We have 115 reliable, but short, fragments for Heraclitus's thought.
Dates Parmenides was born in 515 B.C. He published his revoltionary philosophical poem, On Nature, sometime between 470 and 460 B.C.
Place of residence Parmenides was born in Elea, in southern Italy
Philosophical school Parmenides was the founder of the Eleatic school, a movement intent on proving that reality is unchanging, eternal, and admits of no plurality.
Philosophical pedigree Parmenides may have been the student of Xenophanes. Parmenides' most famous student, in turn, was Zeno, whose brilliant paradoxes baffled the Eleatic's opponents and continue to baffle modern thinkers.
Philosophical interests Parmenides' thought had radical implications in the fields of epistemology and metaphysics.
Available evidence for his thought We have some significant (both in content and in length) pieces of his poem On Nature. These pieces were preserved in various sources, such as the writings of Sextus Empiricus, Proclus, Simplicius, Plato, Plutarch, Galen, and Clement.
Dates Empedocles was born 492 B.C. and died sometime around 424 B.C.
Place of residence Empedocles lived in Acragas, Sicily
Philosophical school Empedocles was the first of the pluralists, a school intent on maintaining, in the face of the Eleatic challenges, that the world exists roughly in the form in which we perceive it.
Philosophical pedigree Empedocles was clearly heavily influenced by Parmenides, though whether he ever studied with members of the Eleatic school is unclear.
Primary philosophical interests Empedocles was primarily interested in natural philosophy, metaphysics, and medicine. Like all post-Parmenidean thinkers, he also had an interest in epistemology.
Available evidence for his thought Large pieces of his important philosophical poem have been preserved.
Dates Anaxagoras was born in 500 B.C. In either 450 or 430 B.C., he was tried by Atheinian state for the crime of impiety and subsequently exiled to northern Ionia where he died soon thereafter.
Place of residence Anaxagoras was born in Clazomenae in Ionia, but he spent most of life in Athens, before being exiled back to Ionia.
Philosophical school Anaxagoras was a pluralist.
Philosophical pedigree Like Empedocles, Anaxagoas was strongly influenced by Parmenides, but there is no evidence that he studied with him.
Primary philosophical interests Anaxagoras's theories made important contributions in the fields of natural philosophy and metaphysics.
Available evidence for his thought For Anaxagoras, we have a few large fragments and a few telling testimonia.
Dates Leucippus' dates are unknown.
Place of residence Leucippus's birthplace has been given variously as Abdera, Miletus, and Elea.
Philosophical school Leucippus was the founder of atomism, which can be viewed as a sub-movement within the larger movement of pluralism.
Philosophical pedigree Leucippus was probably a student of Zeno and was undoubtedly the teacher of Democritus.
Philosophical interests Leucippus' brand of atomism could not have failed to touch upon natural philosophy and metaphysics. Whether he had other interests besides is unknown, since none of his work remains.
Available evidence for his thought There is single fragment, one sentence long, testifying to Leucippus' thought.
Dates Democritus was born in 460 B.C. and died in 375 B.C.
Place of residence Democritus was born in Abdera, Thrace in Northern Greece, but he traveled extensively throughout the ancient world.
Philosophical school Democritus was the philosopher responsible for bringing atomism to public attention.
Philosophical pedigree Democritus was the student of Leucippus.
Primary philosophical interests Demorcitus believed that atomism could be usefully applied to all fields of inquiry. He wrote treatises covering natural philosophy, epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, politics, and mathematics, among other subjects.
Available evidence for his thought Most of our evidence regarding the thought of Democritus comes from in depth testimonia, but there are also some shorter fragments in existence.
Ace your assignments with our guide to Presocratic Philosophy!