Thales of Miletus
Anaximander of Miletus
Anaximenes of Miletus
Xenophanes of Colophon
Parmenides of Elea
The Eleatics: Zeno of Elea and Melissus of Samos
The Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus
Themes, Motifs, and Symbols
Important Quotations Explained
Suggestions for Further Reading
Suggested Essay Topics
How to Cite This SparkNote
Table of Contents
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1. Which of the following three philosophers was not one of the Milesians?
2. Out of what did Thales believe that the world emerged?
3. Which Presocratic philosopher was responsible for the theory of the four elements?
4. Which of the following was not proposed as a physis by one of the Presocratics?
5. Which of the following does not accurately describe the Parmenidian Real?
6. Which of the following philosophers was not a pluralist?
7. What common theoretical tenet gives the pluralists their name?
They all believed in multiple universes
They all believed in multiple physis
They all believed in multiple gods
They all believed in multiple motive forces
8. Who were the Eleatic philosophers?
The philosophers who sought to extend Parmenides' arguments
The philosophers who sought to prove Parmenides wrong
The philosophers who sought to extend Heraclitus's arguments
The philosophers who were obsessed with paradoxes
9. What is a homeomeric substance?
A substance without differentiated parts
A substance that does not change
A substance that is not divisible
Another name for the four elements
10. What does the natural world most resemble according to Heraclitus?
A pile of sand
The Parmenidean Real
11. According to Anaxagoras, what is the unifier and source of all natural things?
12. Of all the Presocratic philosophers, who was the most skeptical about the human capacity for knowledge?
13. Which philosopher spoke about the logos?
14. Which of the following does not accurately describe the logos?
It is the plan within nature
It is divine
Human beings have access to it
It is outside the physical world
15. By what process did Anaximines believe aer gave rise to all other elements?
Condensation and rarefaction
Love and strife
16. Which philosopher posited nous as the ultimate motive force in the world?
17. Which of the following philosophers was an Atomist?
18. Which Eleatic demand did all the pluralists respect?
There can be no generation and destruction
There is no change in the world
There is only one real thing in the world
The senses cannot fail to mislead
19. What was the Atomists solution to the problem of an orderly world?
Mind imposes order
Love and strife impose order
Order falls out of the physical world by necessity
God imposes order
20. What did Xenophanes identify as the main source of human theological error?
The tendency to project ourselves onto the gods
The need for comfort in a cold world
The fear of death
21. What famous principle makes its first appearance in the work of Anaximander?
The microcosm/macrocosm principle
The principle of sufficient reason
The equality principle
22. Who was the first to predict a solar eclipse?
23. Which of these Presocratic philosophers had the least faith in sensory experience?
Zeno of Elea
24. To what human institution did Anaxagoras compare the cosmos?
A law court
25. Which Presocratic philosopher claimed that all things are mixed in with all things?
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