Tragedy; historical novel; war novel; love story


Anonymous third-person

Point of view 

The narrative is written in a detached, journalistic style that focuses on what the characters can see, hear, or smell. This description is often restricted to what Robert Jordan can see or hear. On a few occasions, most notably when introducing Pablo confiding to his horse and introducing Karkov’s rescue of Andrés and Gomez in prison, the narrator comments on the unfolding action.


The tone is detached, solemn, and world-weary, especially when the narrative focuses on the perspective of Robert Jordan. There are recurring elements of dramatic irony (resulting from a discrepancy between what the characters know and what we as readers know) as characters fighting for the Republican side express optimism about the outcome of the war.


Immediate past


Robert Jordan

Major conflict 

As Robert Jordan and a small band of guerrilla fighters prepare to blow up a bridge with their limited resources and manpower, Robert Jordan and Pablo struggle for authority over the small band of guerrillas. Meanwhile, Robert Jordan and Maria cope with the pitfalls of falling in love during wartime.

Rising action 

Robert Jordan arrives at Pablo’s camp, convinces the band members to help him fulfill his mission, and falls in love with Maria. He enlists the aid of nearby guerrilla leader El Sordo and clashes with Pablo. Snow falls. A band of Fascists attacks and slaughters El Sordo’s men. Robert Jordan sends a dispatch to General Golz recommending that the Republican offensive be canceled. Pablo leaves the group and steals some of Robert Jordan’s explosives.


Pablo returns. Andrés delivers the dispatch too late, and the Republican offensive is not canceled. Robert Jordan and the guerrilla band blow up the bridge.

Falling action 

Four people, including Robert Jordan, die or are fatally wounded. Pablo leads the others away, presumably to safety into the mountains.


Robert Jordan’s intuition that Pablo will be a danger to the bridge operation; Pilar’s consternation at what she reads in Robert Jordan’s palm; Agustín’s warning to Robert Jordan to pay attention to his packs; Pilar’s sense of foreboding as she watches Pablo after the men swear allegiance to her; Robert Jordan’s worry about the tracks that El Sordo may have left when the snowstorm stops at night; Pilar’s lengthy description of the smell of death