Who are Estella’s parents?

At the end of the novel, Pip discovers that Estella is the daughter of Magwitch and Molly, a woman who now works as Jagger’s servant after being convicted of murder. This discovery is important because Estella is elegant, refined, and beautiful, and on the basis of this impression, Pip has always assumed that she must come from a high-class background. In fact, Estella’s origins are even lower than Pip’s own.

Who is Pip's benefactor?

Magwitch is eventually revealed to be Pip’s benefactor, even though Pip has long assumed that Miss Havisham is the one funding his education. After Magwitch started making money as a sheep farmer, he became obsessed with using the money to transform Pip into a gentleman. Pip is forced to confront the reality that Miss Havisham was never grooming him for a future with Estella, and that all of his money has been tainted by being associated with a convict.

Why does Pip become ashamed of Joe?

As Pip becomes more conscious of social class and the way that class is used to determine people’s position in the world, he becomes embarrassed by Joe. Joe is not wealthy, well-educated, or worldly. Pip is also particularly concerned that Joe will shape other people’s impression of him, and cause others to think of him as lower-class. For these reasons, Pip is particularly ashamed of how Joe behaves in front of people like Miss Havisham, Estella, and Herbert.

Why does Estella reject Pip's love?

Estella likely rejects Pip’s love because she is incapable of feeling true emotion, and doesn’t understand what it means to love someone. Because of her lack of emotion, she prefers to marry Bentley Drummle, who can give her wealth and social position. She does not, however, reject Pip because of his background or income, and it seems likely that she would never have been able to love him no matter what he achieved.

How does Miss Havisham feel about her behavior at the end of her life?

By the end of her life, Miss Havisham is ashamed and regretful at how she has shaped Estella’s character and used the young woman as a tool for revenge. She realizes it was wrong of her to try to use Estella as a way to get revenge on men. Miss Havisham shows her regret by repeating phrases such as “What have I done!” and by pleading for forgiveness after she has been badly burned.

What are the great expectations in Great Expectations?

In the most literal sense, the phrase “great expectations” refers to the wealth and property that Pip learns he will one day inherit from an unidentified benefactor. While Magwitch’s capture and death prevent Pip from fully coming into his promised “expectations,” there are other forms of expectation which permeate throughout the novel. Pip’s family, particularly Mrs. Joe and Uncle Pumblechook, expect that Miss Havisham will help bring him a fortune, and once Pip becomes entangled with her and Estella, he believes that becoming a gentleman will be the key to his happiness, love, and success. Pip also has assumptions about what gentlemen should look and act like. All of these expectations come crashing down at the end of the novel, suggesting that the achievement of wealth and status is not an inherently desirable scenario.

How does Miss Havisham die?

Miss Havisham dies not long after Pip’s last encounter with her at Stasis House. During their last visit in Chapter 49, Miss Havisham repents for the ways in which she wronged both Estella and Pip as they grew up, realizing that she caused Pip to feel the same kind of pain she did when Compeyson abandoned her at the altar. This revelation, which takes the form of a nervous breakdown and cries of “What have I done,” reaches its climax when Miss Havisham’s dress catches fire. She leaps up from her seat near the fireplace and Pip tries to quell the flames with the table cloth from her wedding table, but both end up with severe burns. Miss Havisham, whose cognitive ability declines rapidly in the wake of the accident, never recovers mentally or physically and ultimately dies from her injuries.

Why does Miss Havisham manipulate Pip?

Miss Havisham manipulates Pip because of her deep desire to “wreak revenge on the male sex.” After Compeyson, to whom Miss Havisham was fully devoted, abandoned her on their wedding day, she vowed to make men pay for the pain that one man caused her. Part of this plan involved adopting Estella and raising her so that she would both be safe from experiencing a broken heart herself and operate as a pawn with which Miss Havisham could break men’s hearts. This set up is what Pip finds himself entangled in from the moment he sets foot in Stasis House, Miss Havisham gradually pushing Estella’s beauty on him until he falls helplessly and miserably in love with her. Pip’s firm belief that he and Estella belong together, as well as his assumption regarding his benefactor’s identity, reveals the strength of Miss Havisham’s influence over him. In the end, she regrets the extent to which she manipulated Pip when she realizes that he is experiencing the same pain that she did on her wedding day.

Who attacks Mrs. Joe?

Orlick is the aggressor who attacks Mrs. Joe, although Dickens does not confirm his identity as such until much later in the novel. In the aftermath of the attack in Chapter 21, Pip predicts that the culprit is either Orlick, with whom Mrs. Joe had recently argued with, or the mysterious man with Joe’s file that they met at the Jolly Bargemen. The only piece of evidence at the crime scene was a convict’s leg-iron that had been filed down. In Chapter 53, Orlick confesses to the attack as he prepares to kill Pip.

How does Pip change throughout the story?

Beyond the fact that Pip ages a number of years throughout the course of Great Expectations, his understanding of his place in the world and his relationship to those around him evolves significantly as he endeavors to become a gentleman. As a young boy living on the marshes, Pip is often fearful and finds his surroundings bewildering. He yearns for Joe’s trust and warmth and experiences a strong sense of guilt when he lies to him about the convict. This loyalty dissolves, however, when Estella’s judgement drives Pip to resent his upbringing. Coming into money only exacerbates this negative attitude as he talks down to Joe and Biddy and flaunts his status. Once he fully realizes the implications of his move to London and his failure to make progress with Estella, Pip becomes extremely dissatisfied. The revelation that Magwitch is his benefactor rather than Miss Havisham angers him at first and makes him regret leaving his life with Joe, although he experiences a change of heart and values Magwitch’s generous affections. By the end, Pip’s heart softens again and he appreciates the value of love and support in a deeper way than young Pip ever could.

Why does Estella marry Drummle?

In Chapter 44, Estella announces her intent to marry Drummle due to the boredom she feels in current life at Stasis house. Much to Pip’s dismay, Estella asserts that the marriage is her decision rather than Miss Havisham’s, and she suggests that Drummle is a better choice than a man who will quickly feel the impacts of her cold heart’s inability to truly love. She inadvertently inflicts pain on Pip by making this choice, even though her intentions seem focused on limiting the hurt that her marriage to any man will ultimately cause. In Estella’s mind, the best way to do this is to marry someone who is also mean and disinterested.

What happens to Magwitch?

Driven by his desire to see his gentleman in real life, Magwitch travels to London to be with Pip despite the fact that he faces a death sentence should he return to the country. The pair try their best to hide the convict’s identity and escape England together, but Compeyson, who has been closely following them, alerts the authorities. A fight with Compeyson drags both men into the river where Magwitch becomes severely injured before the police promptly take him to jail. As he lies in jail awaiting his trial and eventually his death sentence, Magwitch’s condition deteriorates rapidly. Pip continues to visit him every day, and, in his final moments, Pip tells him that his beloved daughter is still alive. Upon hearing this information, Magwitch kisses Pip’s hand, lowers it to his chest, and dies.

What does Estella represent?

Especially in regards to Pip, Estella represents the unshakeable temptation of pursuing an ideal that does not truly exist. Miss Havisham raises her to be a temptress and positions Pip as her victim, emphasizing her beauty above all else. Blinded by this perception of Estella as an idyllic and prosperous woman, Pip continues to pursue her despite the fact that her coldness causes him to be perpetually miserable. This dynamic also applies to the larger theme of social mobility that appears throughout the text. Estella is the first to criticize Pip’s “common” upbringing and appearance, and to him, she represents a social class much more respectable than his own. Just as he pursues her for her beauty, he pursues a life as a gentleman in part to impress her and meets a similarly melancholy fate. Using a character as heartless as Estella to represent the temptation of an unachievable ideal allows Dickens to highlight the severe consequences of thoughtless decision-making.

Why does Jaggers frequently wash his hands?

Mr. Jaggers washes his hands while at work in his London office as a means of distancing himself from the misdeeds of his clients. In Chapter 26, Pip explains that his guardian washes his hands “as if he were a surgeon or a dentist,” a comparison which suggests that he seeks to completely purify himself in the process. Moreover, Mr. Jaggers uses a scented soap which makes it clear to everyone around him that he undergoes this literal and metaphorical cleansing. This behavior speaks to Mr. Jaggers’s to-the-point attitude which prevents him from becoming overly involved in his clients’ entanglements. Given that many of the people he defends in court are violent criminals, however, his hand washing may also suggest that he experiences moral discomfort at work and seeks to relieve himself of it whenever possible.

Who is the “pale young gentleman”?

The “pale young gentleman” whom Pip meets and fights outside at Stasis House turns out to be Herbert Pocket, a distant young relative of Miss Havisham. While the “pale young gentleman” instigates the fight in Chapter 11, Pip quickly notices that he has no physical strength and thoroughly pummels him. He does, however, admit that the gentleman’s “spirit inspired [him] with great respect.” Pip does not see the boy again until Chapter 21 when he arrives at Barnard’s in London, and both quickly recognize each other. Throughout the rest of the novel, the two become very close friends, and Pip continues to respect Herbert’s integrity.