Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was
born on September 24, 1896,
and named after his ancestor Francis Scott Key, the author of “The
Star-Spangled Banner.” Fitzgerald was raised in St. Paul, Minnesota.
Though an intelligent child, he did poorly in school and was sent
to a New Jersey boarding school in 1911.
Despite being a mediocre student there, he managed to enroll at
Princeton in 1913. Academic troubles and
apathy plagued him throughout his time at college, and he never
graduated, instead enlisting in the army in 1917,
as World War I neared its end.
Fitzgerald became a second lieutenant, and was stationed
at Camp Sheridan, in Montgomery, Alabama. There he met and fell
in love with a wild seventeen-year-old beauty named Zelda Sayre. Zelda
finally agreed to marry him, but her overpowering desire for wealth,
fun, and leisure led her to delay their wedding until he could prove
a success. With the publication of This Side of Paradise in 1920,
Fitzgerald became a literary sensation, earning enough money and
fame to convince Zelda to marry him.
Many of these events from Fitzgerald’s early
life appear in his most famous novel, The Great Gatsby, published
in 1925. Like Fitzgerald, Nick Carraway is
a thoughtful young man from Minnesota, educated at an Ivy League
school (in Nick’s case, Yale), who moves to New York after the war.
Also similar to Fitzgerald is Jay Gatsby, a sensitive young man
who idolizes wealth and luxury and who falls in love with a beautiful
young woman while stationed at a military camp in the South.
Having become a celebrity, Fitzgerald fell into a wild,
reckless life-style of parties and decadence, while desperately
trying to please Zelda by writing to earn money. Similarly, Gatsby
amasses a great deal of wealth at a relatively young age, and devotes
himself to acquiring possessions and throwing parties that he believes
will enable him to win Daisy’s love. As the giddiness of the Roaring Twenties
dissolved into the bleakness of the Great Depression, however, Zelda
suffered a nervous breakdown and Fitzgerald battled alcoholism,
which hampered his writing. He published Tender Is the Night in 1934,
and sold short stories to The Saturday Evening Post to support
his lavish lifestyle. In 1937, he left for
Hollywood to write screenplays, and in 1940,
while working on his novel The Love of the Last Tycoon, died
of a heart attack at the age of forty-four.
Fitzgerald was the most famous chronicler of 1920s
America, an era that he dubbed “the Jazz Age.” Written in 1925, The
Great Gatsby is one of the greatest literary documents
of this period, in which the American economy soared, bringing unprecedented
levels of prosperity to the nation. Prohibition, the ban on the
sale and consumption of alcohol mandated by the Eighteenth Amendment
to the Constitution (1919), made millionaires
out of bootleggers, and an underground culture of revelry sprang
up. Sprawling private parties managed to elude police notice, and
“speakeasies”—secret clubs that sold liquor—thrived. The chaos and
violence of World War I left America in a state of shock, and the
generation that fought the war turned to wild and extravagant living
to compensate. The staid conservatism and timeworn values of the
previous decade were turned on their ear, as money, opulence, and
exuberance became the order of the day.
Like Nick in The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald
found this new lifestyle seductive and exciting, and, like Gatsby,
he had always idolized the very rich. Now he found himself in an
era in which unrestrained materialism set the tone of society, particularly
in the large cities of the East. Even so, like Nick, Fitzgerald
saw through the glitter of the Jazz Age to the moral emptiness and
hypocrisy beneath, and part of him longed for this absent moral
center. In many ways, The Great Gatsby represents
Fitzgerald’s attempt to confront his conflicting feelings
about the Jazz Age. Like Gatsby, Fitzgerald was driven by his love
for a woman who symbolized everything he wanted, even as she led
him toward everything he despised.